Chronik der Sternenkrieger 3 - Prototyp (German Edition)
First and foremost it is necessary to subject the cases of our prisoners of war still detained today by our erstwhile enemies to a review guided by the reformed legal perspectives. The way in which these cases are dealt with shows whether the path is now clear for equal justice for all, and thus for a new European peacetime order. German newspapers rarely carry articles about reprisals threatened or implemented by the western Allies at or after the end of the war.
However, the Stuttgarter Zeitung , for example, reported that the French had threatened reprisal executions at a ratio of 1: We know very little today about conditions prevailing from to , especially in West Germany, since these actions on the part of the victors were never prosecuted. The Germans were forbidden to prosecute because of a law that is still in effect today, and the victors, naturally enough, had no particular interest in such prosecution.
In light of the facts as established by Professor Siegert, reprisals and the execution of hostages will be considered to be tactically questionable and perhaps morally reprehensible, but strictly speaking these acts were not unlawful at the time they took place. This also should be ever kept in mind when the topic at issue is the reactions of German troops in Russia and Serbia, i. Partisan attacks began immediately following the start of the eastern war; certain partisan units deliberately let themselves be overrun, in order then to engage in sabotage behind the advancing German troops and to commit horrific atrocities against soldiers and civilians they caught unaware.
Later on, partisan units as large as entire divisions were flown into the hinterland of the German troops, or smuggled in through the lines. Naturally, the data to be found in the subject literature about the numbers of partisans and the damage they caused vary widely, since there are few reliable documents about this kind of unlawful warfare and since the Soviet Union also always had a strong propagandistic interest in the historiography of partisan warfare. The most reliable data seems to be that provided by Bernd Bonwetsch,  who gives the numbers of partisans as follows: These figures are based both on Soviet and on contemporaneous Reich-German sources.
The damage done by the partisans, especially in the area of Byelorussia, is considerably more difficult to quantify. Regarding the numbers of German soldiers and civilians killed by partisans, Bonwetsch contrasts the claims from Soviet sources — up to 1. Furthermore, he shows that those orders from higher up which broke international laws e.
To what degree these data were inflated in order to glorify the partisans is not known, but there is no doubt that the policy of scorched earth  practiced by the Red Army in their retreat in , together with the acts of sabotage and murder by the partisans, were the major contributing factors in the defeat of the German army in the East.
The brutality with which the Red Army and especially the partisans fought, right from the start of the war and on orders from the highest echelons, was described vividly by J. Hoffmann,  for example, and again recently by A. Epifanow  and Franz W. Seidler  ; A. Especially in Russia, however, this could not prevent the fact that lower-ranking units, acting on the basis of their own experiences with the Soviet manner of warfare, engaged in reprisals and revenge not ordered or approved by higher ranks. But even the numbers given by German authorities some 40, victims could have resulted theoretically in reprisal killings of about , civilians.
It goes without saying that such numbers are horrific, and we can just be thankful that reprisal killings are forbidden nowadays and hope that the law will be observed. We must, however, ask whether such killings actually took place in those days.
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The so-called Einsatzgruppen of the Security Police and the SD Security Service were among others the units in charge of combating the partisans. Considering their relatively unsuccessful efforts at curbing partisan activity, we must note that these initially numerically weak troops were obviously entirely overwhelmed by their task of policing the enormous region many hundred thousands of square kilometers , which they were in charge of and whose more remote areas were increasingly under the control of partisans.
The allegations made against these troops today — namely, that, aside from their hopeless battle against the partisans, they also cooperated with many Wehrmacht soldiers to kill several million Jews as part of the Final Solution — beg the comment that, as Gerald Reitlinger says, this is absolutely unbelievable;  further, we would agree with Hans-Heinrich Wilhelm that the figures given in the various documents are probably entirely unreliable.
The fact that the Jews were predominantly unpopular amongst these peoples was mainly due to fairly recent causes. In the previous decades many people had had terrible experiences with Communist commissars, disproportionately many of whom were of Jewish descent, especially in the first few decades of Soviet Bolshevism. For what greater misfortune could happen to a people than to have its own sons engage in excesses. Not only will this be counted against us as an element of our guilt, it will also be held up to us as reproach for an expression of our power, for a striving for Jewish hegemony.
Soviet power is equated with Jewish power, and the grim hatred of the Bolsheviki will transform into a hatred of the Jews […] All nations and peoples will be swamped by waves of Judeophobia. Never before have such thunderclouds gathered above the heads of the Jewish people. This is the bottom line of the Russian upheaval for us, for the Jewish people.
There were both good and bad times in those days too, but the Russian people lived and worked and the fruits of their labors were their own. The Russian name was mighty and threatening. Today the Jews are at every corner and in all levels of power. The Russians see them at the head of the Czarist city, Moscow, and at the head of the metropolis on the River Neva and at the head of the Red Army, the ultimate mechanism of self-destruction.
In the early s, Professor Dr.
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Even at the start of this century Jewish philosophers were still pointing with great pride to this extensive participation of the Jews in Socialist movements. It is all the more remarkable that in the publication Commentary , the voice of right-wing Jews in America, published an article by Jerry Z.
Muller who recalls these indisputable facts — though of course they are open to interpretation: Thus it seems understandable that National Socialism, and the eastern peoples fighting alongside for their freedom, equated the Jews in general with the Bolshevist terror and the activities of the commissars — though such an identification, being sweeping and collective, was unjust.
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Nevertheless, it is therefore more than plausible that it was Jews, first and foremost, who were made to pay for the partisan warfare and other war crimes of the Soviets. Anyone who rightly criticizes this, however, should also not omit to consider where the blame for this kind of escalation of the war in the East was to be found. And clearly it was to be found with Stalin who, as an aside, had treated the Jews in his sphere of influence at least as mercilessly ever since the war had begun, as Hitler had.
April mit einem Verlust von 1. Mai sank, nachdem es von einem Torpedo eines deutschen U-Bootes getroffen worden war. Als das Schiff am Sie schlugen mittschiffs und am Heck ein. Das Schiff brach fast augenblicklich in der Mitte durch. Das Schiff sank innerhalb von nur vier Minuten. Nur konnten gerettet werden. Es ging ebenfalls am 3. Mai nach massiven Luftangriffen britischer Bomber unter. The Journal of Historical Review , vol. Hoffmann, for example, and again recently by A.
Epifanow and Franz W. Opinions about this subject vary widely within historical revisionism from positions, which are not very different from the established opinion, to those who deny such mass murders completely. The following article tries to summarize the current knowledge from one revisionist viewpoint, which revised exaggerated claims of mass murder and brings the issue into the context of wartime reprisals-and reprisal excesses-against illegal partisans. We hope that this may trigger a vivid discussion and a start into further, more detailed research into this field.
This should always be kept in mind when the topic at issue is the reactions of German troops in Russia and Serbia, i. The most reliable data seems to be that provided by Bernd Bonwetsch, who gives the numbers of partisans as follows: Seidler from the University of Munich is one of the few historians who try to keep a balanced view on the events of World War Two and opposes in a very scholarly way.
His book on the Wehrmacht in its war against partisans is an excellent example of a thorough refutation of many myths. Castle Hill Publishers will try to publish several of Prof. Translators working for fair prices as well as financial support for these projects are more than welcome. Please get in touch with us. Regarding the numbers of German soldiers and civilians killed by partisans, Bonwetsch contrasts the claims from Soviet sources-up to 1.
To what degree these data were inflated in order to glorify the partisans is not known, but there is no doubt that the policy of scorched earth  practiced by the Red Army in their retreat in , together with the acts of sabotage and murder by the partisans, were the major contributing factors in the defeat of the German army in the East. As we know today, the German Wehrmacht deployed in the East fought not only for the survival of the Third Reich, but after they abandoned all illusions of imperialism, they also fought for the freedom of all of Europe from Stalinism, and therefore, in light of Prof.
The allegations made against these troops today-namely, that, aside from their hopeless battle against the partisans, they also cooperated with many Wehrmacht soldiers to kill several million Jews as part of the Final Solution-beg the comment that, as Gerald Reitlinger says, this is absolutely unbelievable. Partisans prepare to blow up a railway track leading from the West to Moscow: The delay and destruction of supplies results in the death of ten thousands of German Soldiers. As documentary evidence for the number of Jews shot by the Einsatzgruppen behind the Russian front, the so-called event reports Ereignisberichte are frequently quoted.
These reports are said to have been prepared by the Einsatzgruppen , who also supposedly sent them to Berlin, where these documents were found after the war. One of the most well-known experts on the subject of Einsatzgruppen , however, Hans-Heinrich Wilhelm, stated as early as in that he is not certain whether or not the event reports are correct.
Because he could show that the statistics in these reports about the number of murdered Jews are unreliable, he warned his colleagues as follows: This remark was only consequential, since he did express similar doubts about the reliability of these documents already in his first book, when he speculated: Elsewhere he noted that one of the event reports of the Einsatzgruppen was evidently manipulated by adding a zero to 1,, thus turning the total to 11, In case the Einsatzgruppen were the forgers, then one would assume that they believed that somebody in Berlin desired to see as many Jews murdered as possible.
But what if someone else was the forger? Babi Yar is the name of an erosion ditch system in the vicinity of the Ukrainian city of Kyiv. They are also considered the informer and agents of the NKVD, who are responsible for the terror against the Ukrainian people. All Jews were arrested as reprisal for the arson in Kyiv and a total of 33, Jews were executed on September 29 and Money, valuables, and clothing were secured and made available to the NSV  for the provision of local German civilians and also partly to the temporary city administration to help needy residents.
Wilhelm writes about this event:.www.balterrainternacional.com/wp-content/2019-10-26/soy-gay-en-ingles.php
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Burning German supply train in the Soviet Union. The fire spread quickly, and Blobel, who had arrived on the 21 st , had to vacate his offices. The larger part of the inner city burned down. We had considerable losses, because during this fire further huge explosives blew up. The local commandant of Kyiv first thought of sabotage by local residents until we captured a detonation chart.
This chart listed about 50 or 60 objects of Kyiv, which had been prepared for a long time to be blown up. This was also verified right away by the results of investigations by our pioneers. There were at least 40 such objects ready to be blasted, and most of the detonations were to be ignited remotely through radio signals. It is therefore established that not only the inner city of Kyiv burn down as a result of these detonations-with corresponding losses of the local population-but also that the German troops lost hundreds of soldiers and almost their entire military leadership staff.
Reprisal shootings for such partisan attacks would have been the normal-and justified-reaction during wartime.
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Only the event reports no. The question whether or not the report about 33, shootings can be found in event report no.
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Hilberg is for event report no. That an event report, which among others lists individual arrests and shootings, does not report the execution of 33, Jews, is hard to believe, but that seems to be exactly the case. An Eye for an Eye! Killed German Soldiers behind the front line, murdered by partisans; below: Trained personnel for the preparation of these reports was not everywhere available.
For the transmission via radio and telex, mostly third parties, like military units, had to be used, which caused bothersome problems due to the frequent change in location. The simplest rules were not followed. For example, exact information like when and where a reported event occurred were quite frequently missing, which was unthinkable for a military report. Because the Einsatzgruppen and Kommandos worked at different speeds, messages frequently crossed each other or were frequently left unattended for extended periods of time because of their excessive length and low priority, some events were not only once or twice, but several times transmitted, and occasionally a backup message was sent days or weeks afterwards, it is not surprising that the editor at the RSHA  mixed up the chronology of events.